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https://retrieverman.net/2017/09/12/a-lesson-in-breed-creation/

Goldens were developed by wealthy men with acreage, who wanted dogs to retrieve their game; Yorkies were developed by factory-workers & Scottish miners, crofters, shepherds, hunting & fishing guides, farmers, innkeepers, stable-owners & publicans.
Anyone who had a RAT problem wanted a terrier to kill 'em; horses, grain, food, spilled ale, anything edible attracts rodents. // Goldens have a wide, deep foundation with dogs from many breeds & even-more individual strains; Yorkies have a shallow gene-pool with a lot of tight breeding; inbreeding & matings that had COI far too-close for breed or individual health.

- terry


 

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SB,
i passed along a blog-post that i found both interesting & well-documented; the foundation stock & early pedigree records for both breeds are available on-line.

If U disagree with the blogger, it will take more than sweeping statements to persuade me to join U. :) Just sayin'.
- terry

 

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I'm not trying to persuade you. Merely sharing an opinion. When I have time I will explain further. I realize the records are available. I'm not disageeing with on starting from a small gene pool and one starting from larger gene pool. Rather that class actually causes this in general. With the Yorkie it was likely due to becoming a show breed that prompted the small gene pool of future Yorkies, since they came from a specific strain and a certain stud. On the other hand Goldens were bred as working dogs with use of several breeds and some believed they should be crossed. There are small gene pool dogs developed by the wealthy for exibition in the show ring and there are brreds developed by common people with diverse foundation stock.
 

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If this were pointing out that
Tweedmouth began a type of sporting dogs that continued to be bred as a type for many generations. Due to this there was some line breedimg but also continued use of other breeds, as it was not a pure bred dog.

And that the Yorkie was being developed as a show dog (and pet), therefore there would take place inbreeding to set type and popular sires (which the author actually mentions popular sire effect in Goldens.) People stopped mixing breeds and tried for a physical type that would win shows.

It says these are 2 pedigrees from the same time, but they are more than 20 years apart.
That's not even the real issue. The deception lies in failure to mention state of development, most importantly for the use in the show ring. These were not parallel breeds.

In the 1860s what would be recognized as the Yorkie was already being exhibited in the show ring (broken coat, toy terrier).
These dogs descended from Clydesdale terrier, Skye terrier, Bkack and tan terrier, Paisley terrier, ect were bred together and resulted in some variance of type. The quickest way to ensure more "type" is through inbreeding. Though they still had a ways to go to actually produce consistency the dogs were already beginning to develop into a pure breed. Ben was extreme on his inbreeding with a COI of 31%, but he wasn't the only dog. Rather he won a lot and is said to have sired many offspring in the breed and winning offspring. Though I've not found dogs going back to him myself, just dead ends. Maybe Yorkie owners can provide that. It's also silly to think that no dogs had loose pedigrees initially just because Ben didn't, especially considering the fact people were cross breeding lol.

It wasn't even until 1968 that Tweedmouth did his initial retriever x spaniel cross breeding. He continued to mix breeds as did others rather than bottleneck into a pure bred show dog, they bred for the sporting dog that best fit their need. The pedigree the author provided for Nous II is double bred on Cowslip who is the offspring of the original retriever (Nous) x spaniel (Belle). Though with 50% other blood he's not a tightly bred with COI of 6.25%. Though all Goldens go back to this inn initial breeding and their progeny. Eventually people started to show these dogs and breed for the show ring and began inbreeding
http://www.k9data.com/pedigree.asp?ID=2885

This half brother / sister mating has a COI of over 13% (from 1919). I don't know a lot about who's who in the old retriever breeders but Culham Cooper I've seen in several pedigrees of dogs so it must have been popular at that time.


http://www.k9data.com/pedigree.asp?ID=6046

This full brother / sister breeding is COI of 25% (born 1913 - the year the KC recognized them, though they had already been being shown).

When people breed for show bottleneck happens due to setting type and only certain number of dogs going into the studbook.

If you follow when people seriously bred for show ring in each breed you find the same level of inbreeding, give or take 13-28% COI.


Fast forward to modern day and the Golden has continued to loose diversity after over a century of being bred for the show ring. They are known to suffer like others from increased homozygous genes (median level of heterozygousity in Goldens is only 32%), diseases correlating with inbreeding like high cancer rate. What can also be noted is that show lines are more closely related to each other, while working lines have more diversity from one line to another. The working lines are still not bred for strict type like show, working lines also often don't have popular sire issue near as bad as everyone trying to breed to a famed show winner or his offspring.

If you examine another breed at the same time (1800s) owned by the working class pit dogs, you will see a lot of diversity in ther development and it being continued to be maintained in dogs in the 1900s. There were inbred dogs and line bred dogs, but many bloodlines were recognized by breeder rather than actually being tightly bred on one dog. Plenty of breeding between unrelated dogs. There was also a lot of foundation dogs and various strains used in what would later become known as the Pit Bull. On the contrary, what became the show strain Staffordshire Bull Terrier seems to go back to handful of dogs in which the pure breed dogs were established Gentleman Jim, Brindle Mack, Queenie, Fearless Joe, Game Bill. That's what I found when I'd researched before. Likewise the AKC show breed American Staffordshire Terrier came from a very small foundation pool, of which dogs were inbred together. From this pool the breed further lost diversity through bottleneck when lines were lost, as the current strains now basically go back to only a couple lines.
 
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