* Distemper and measles are very similar viruses, distemper is doggy measles.There are a number of well-documented specific canine encephalitides
and encephalopathies : distemper, canine adenovirus (Rubarth’s disease),
rabies, Aujesky disease, Salmon poisoning (Neorickettsia helmintheca) , toxoplasmosis, experimental allergic encephalitis, and thiamine deficiency .
In addition, a canine herpesvirus has been shown to cause an encephalitis ,
and a post-rabies-vaccination leucoencephalitis has been recognized .
The lesions recorded in these entities using light microscopy differ in most
respects from the post-vaccinal inclusion body encephalitis reported here.
All the cases in this report were associated with the recent injection of a widely used, live, attenuated, combined, distemper/hepatitis canine kidney tissue culture vaccine produced by one fim. Two episodes occurred, one in the summer of 1968 and the other 2 years later. Cases were reported from widely scattered areas of eastern Australia and were associated with two or three batches of vaccine only in each year. Only one dog had had a prior measles vaccination*.
Encephalitis: Watch Out for This Fast-Moving Brain DiseaseAbstract
One 4.5-month-old male Border Collie cross presented with aggression and seizures in October 2006. A 16-month-old, female, spayed Border Collie cross presented with hypersalivation and a dropped jaw and rapidly became stuporous in September 2007. The dogs were littermates and developed acute neurological signs 5 and 27 days, respectively, after vaccination with different modified live vaccines containing canine distemper virus.
Sections of brain in both dogs showed evidence of encephalitis mainly centred on the grey matter of brainstem nuclei, where there was extensive and intense parenchymal and perivascular infiltration of histiocytes and lymphocytes. Intra-nuclear and intra-cytoplasmic inclusions typical of distemper were plentiful and there was abundant labelling for canine distemper virus using immunohistochemistry.
Post-vaccinal canine distemper.
Post-vaccinal canine distemper has mainly been attributed to virulent vaccine virus, but it may also occur in dogs whose immunologic nature makes them susceptible to disease induced by a modified-live vaccine virus that is safe and protective for most dogs.
Causes of Encephalitis
There are two basic types of encephalitis: infectious and idiopathic. The infectious form of the disease can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection, parasites, immune-mediated disorders, tick-borne disease, and foreign bodies.
We diagnose the disorder of idiopathic encephalitis when we can’t find an infectious cause for the disease.
Where a pet lives often plays a role in the cause of encephalitis. In areas of the US where ticks are a problem, tick-borne infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichia, and Lyme disease are common causes. In the southwest US, a fungal infection known as valley fever can also be a cause.
Bacterial infections that cause encephalitis are relatively rare in companion animals, but they do occur from time to time. Viral causes include canine distemper and feline infectious peritonitis. When a parasite is involved, Toxoplasma gondii is often the culprit.