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I have no experience with it but a quick Google search says that it's an inflammation of the Central Nervous System. If you suspect your dogs has an issue like this, please get to a vet ASAP. If your dog has been diagnosed, your vet should be able to provide the information that you need.
 

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I don't know too much about it in dogs, but I'm sure it is similar to what happens in humans. It is essentially an inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, or connections. I know in humans causes are most often viral, but can also be caused by prions (an abnormal folding of proteins). Symptoms are pretty much like having the flu: headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, although some people are asymptomatic. There are also more severe symptoms like memory loss, confusion, and dizziness.

I imagine a dog could present with similar symptoms. The most important thing is timely diagnosis because when encephalitis becomes severe, it can become quite life threatening. Is your dog displaying any of these symptoms?
 
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Did the MRI show swelling on the brain? Does your vet have any idea for cause?

What the others have described is correct, best wishes.

Edit: just read your other post, I'll see if I can find any info with good sources for you, please be wary of google searches for this there is a lot of misinformation out there about medical conditions.
 

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As others above have stated it is an inflammation of the brain/spinal cord. Did your dog have any vaccinations recently? Encephalitis is a known adverse event, happens in humans too. Ever heard of the DPT scream? That is when a child cries inconsolably after a vaccination due to brain inflammation usually following the DPT (diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus vaccine).

A Post-Vaccinal Inclusion Body Encephalitis in Dogs

There are a number of well-documented specific canine encephalitides
and encephalopathies : distemper, canine adenovirus (Rubarth’s disease),
rabies, Aujesky disease, Salmon poisoning (Neorickettsia helmintheca) , toxoplasmosis, experimental allergic encephalitis, and thiamine deficiency [5].
In addition, a canine herpesvirus has been shown to cause an encephalitis [7],
and a post-rabies-vaccination leucoencephalitis has been recognized [2].
The lesions recorded in these entities using light microscopy differ in most
respects from the post-vaccinal inclusion body encephalitis reported here.

Clinical History
All the cases in this report were associated with the recent injection of a widely used, live, attenuated, combined, distemper/hepatitis canine kidney tissue culture vaccine produced by one fim. Two episodes occurred, one in the summer of 1968 and the other 2 years later. Cases were reported from widely scattered areas of eastern Australia and were associated with two or three batches of vaccine only in each year. Only one dog had had a prior measles vaccination*.
* Distemper and measles are very similar viruses, distemper is doggy measles.

Vaccines and Brain Damage - Dogs Naturally Magazine Article includes several references to relevant research.

Post-vaccinal distemper encephalitis in two Border Collie cross littermates.

Abstract
CASE HISTORY:
One 4.5-month-old male Border Collie cross presented with aggression and seizures in October 2006. A 16-month-old, female, spayed Border Collie cross presented with hypersalivation and a dropped jaw and rapidly became stuporous in September 2007. The dogs were littermates and developed acute neurological signs 5 and 27 days, respectively, after vaccination with different modified live vaccines containing canine distemper virus.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS:
Sections of brain in both dogs showed evidence of encephalitis mainly centred on the grey matter of brainstem nuclei, where there was extensive and intense parenchymal and perivascular infiltration of histiocytes and lymphocytes. Intra-nuclear and intra-cytoplasmic inclusions typical of distemper were plentiful and there was abundant labelling for canine distemper virus using immunohistochemistry.

DIAGNOSIS:
Post-vaccinal canine distemper.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE:
Post-vaccinal canine distemper has mainly been attributed to virulent vaccine virus, but it may also occur in dogs whose immunologic nature makes them susceptible to disease induced by a modified-live vaccine virus that is safe and protective for most dogs.
Encephalitis: Watch Out for This Fast-Moving Brain Disease

Causes of Encephalitis

There are two basic types of encephalitis: infectious and idiopathic. The infectious form of the disease can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection, parasites, immune-mediated disorders, tick-borne disease, and foreign bodies.

We diagnose the disorder of idiopathic encephalitis when we can’t find an infectious cause for the disease.

Where a pet lives often plays a role in the cause of encephalitis. In areas of the US where ticks are a problem, tick-borne infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichia, and Lyme disease are common causes. In the southwest US, a fungal infection known as valley fever can also be a cause.

Bacterial infections that cause encephalitis are relatively rare in companion animals, but they do occur from time to time. Viral causes include canine distemper and feline infectious peritonitis. When a parasite is involved, Toxoplasma gondii is often the culprit.
 
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