My puppy Hunter is now a little over 4 months and we have had him potty outside since he was 6wks (before his first shots). We tried the potty pads one time but he chewed those up. XD
I think teaching Douglas to go outside will help him establish his potty area - and lessen the frequency of accidents in the house (and possibly making other things easier. ex: the park or on walks where there's grass)
When Hunter was younger, we started without leash. I have an open yard, but he was too tiny to run off. XD If you have a fenced in yard, that would work perfectly!
Training him to go outside:
Place Douglas outside and stand near him and say "Go potty" (or any other cue you want to use). And wait. The first few times might take 10 minutes or more. Just be patient! c: This isn't play time, so don't try to sound excited or engage in play. Just say "Go potty" and wait. If Douglas sits, pick him up gently to place him on his feet, but don't say anything.
When he goes potty, say "Good boy!" or "Yes!" and be all happy!
Then take him inside. At his age, you might want to take him out every 2 hours or so. If he's still having accidents, maybe make your potty times more frequent. Consistency is key, supervise him, and try to catch him when he is about to go potty in your house. You will notice his "pottying positions" and when you do, clap loudly and say "No!" and take him outside immediately.
Do you use a crate for Douglas? Crate training will help with this process!
Again, I'm not too familiar with newspaper/potty pad training for indoors. I just found outside trips easier for my situation. c: You could enclose a small area for your puppy with the newspapers and praise him when he does go on them. Good luck training!
As for the treats, I have never used treats for potty training outdoors, only verbally praising my puppy. That way he doesn't see peeing as a trick he could do for a treat. C: