Definitions of Training/Behavior Terms - Page 2

Go Back   Dog Forum > Keeping and Caring for Dogs > Dog Training and Behavior > Training and Behavior Stickies

Definitions of Training/Behavior Terms

This is a discussion on Definitions of Training/Behavior Terms within the Training and Behavior Stickies forums, part of the Dog Training and Behavior category; Jackpot: A mega-reward given after a particularly exceptional effort....

User Tag List

Like Tree1Likes

 
LinkBack Thread Tools Display Modes
Old 05-07-2014, 11:43 PM
  #11
Senior Member
 
fawkese1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: California...in the mountains
Posts: 22,639
Mentioned: 38 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
J

Jackpot: A mega-reward given after a particularly exceptional effort.

Last edited by fawkese1; 05-08-2014 at 12:53 AM.
fawkese1 is offline  
Old 05-07-2014, 11:44 PM
  #12
Senior Member
 
fawkese1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: California...in the mountains
Posts: 22,639
Mentioned: 38 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
K

Keep-going signal: A signal, verbal or otherwise, given in the middle of a behavior to tell the dog he is doing the behavior correctly and should keep doing what he’s doing. Keep-going signals add an unnecessary level of complexity in training.

Last edited by fawkese1; 05-08-2014 at 12:54 AM.
fawkese1 is offline  
Old 05-07-2014, 11:45 PM
  #13
Senior Member
 
fawkese1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: California...in the mountains
Posts: 22,639
Mentioned: 38 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
L

Latency: The time between the cue and the response. Ideally, that time is zero—or as close to immediate as possible.

Look At That: LAT is a training game or technique explained in Leslie McDevitt's book "Control Unleashed" in which the handler clicks/marks and rewards the dog for looking at a trigger or potential trigger. The technique is meant to do several things; improve handler focus by conditioning the dog to reorient to the handler after seeing the stimulus, desensitize the dog to the stimulus through reframing, and increase the dog's confidence by allowing him a way to visually explore his surroundings. It is important that the dog be kept "under threshold" when the LAT game is played.

Luring: A hands-off method of guiding the dog through a behavior. For example, a food lure can be used to guide a dog from a sit into a down. This is a common method of getting more complex behaviors. Lures are usually food, but they may also be target sticks or anything else the dog will follow. Trainers must take care to fade the lure early.

Last edited by fawkese1; 05-09-2014 at 12:22 AM.
fawkese1 is offline  
 
Old 05-07-2014, 11:49 PM
  #14
Senior Member
 
fawkese1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: California...in the mountains
Posts: 22,639
Mentioned: 38 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
M

Marker: A signal used to mark desired behavior at the instant it occurs. The clicker is a marker.

Modeling: A technique used in traditional training to get behavior. At the outset, the dog is physically guided, or otherwise compelled, into doing the behavior. Pushing a dog’s rear into a sit is modeling. Clicker trainers don’t use modeling because we want our dogs to be active participants in the training process, using their own brains to figure out what will earn them clicks.

Last edited by fawkese1; 05-08-2014 at 12:58 AM.
fawkese1 is offline  
Old 05-07-2014, 11:49 PM
  #15
Senior Member
 
fawkese1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: California...in the mountains
Posts: 22,639
Mentioned: 38 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
N

Negative punishment (P-): Taking away something the animal will work for to suppress (lessen the frequency of) a behavior. For example, a dog jumps on you to get attention. By turning your back or leaving the room, you apply P- by removing the attention he wants.

Negative reinforcement (R-): Removing something the animal will work to avoid to strengthen (increase the frequency of) a behavior. Heeling is traditionally taught through R-. The dog receives a correction when he walks anywhere except in heel position. Walking in heel position increases, because that is the only “safe” place—because the threat of correction is removed by walking there. The key to R- is that an aversive must first be applied or threatened in order for it to be removed.

No Reward Marker (NRM): Intended to be a signal to say, “No, that isn’t what I want. Try again.” From the operant conditioning perspective, it’s intended to add a verbal cue to extinction. However, once something has been added to the situation, it’s impossible to know whether a change occurred through extinction or punishment. No reward markers usually represent an unnecessary level of complexity in a training program.

Last edited by fawkese1; 05-08-2014 at 01:01 AM.
fawkese1 is offline  
Old 05-07-2014, 11:49 PM
  #16
Senior Member
 
fawkese1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: California...in the mountains
Posts: 22,639
Mentioned: 38 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
O

Operant conditioning (OC): The process of changing an animal’s response to a certain stimulus by manipulating the consequences that immediately follow the response. The five principles of operant conditioning were developed by B.F. Skinner. Clicker training is a subset of operant conditioning, using only positive reinforcement, extinction, and, to a lesser extent, negative punishment.
4 quadrants of operant conditioning

Last edited by fawkese1; 05-09-2014 at 01:37 AM.
fawkese1 is offline  
Old 05-07-2014, 11:50 PM
  #17
Senior Member
 
fawkese1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: California...in the mountains
Posts: 22,639
Mentioned: 38 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
P

Permanent criteria: Criteria that are found in the final behavior. Permanent criteria should be trained to a higher level of reliability than temporary criteria.

poison(ed): No longer reinforcing for the dog.

Positive punishment (P+): Adding something the animal will work to avoid to suppress (lessen the frequency of) a behavior. For example, jerking on the leash to stop a dog from jumping on someone is P+ used to suppress the behavior of jumping. Other common examples of P+ include yelling, nose taps, spanking, electric shock, and assorted “booby traps.”

Positive reinforcement (R+): Adding something the animal will work for to strengthen (increase the frequency of) a behavior. For example, giving the dog a treat for sitting in order to increase the probability that the dog will sit again.

Premack principle: A theory stating that a stronger response or a preferred response will reinforce a weaker response.
http://www.dogster.com/lifestyle/the-premack-principle

Primary reinforcer: A reinforcer that the animal is born needing. Food, water, and sex are primary reinforcers.

Proofing: Teaching your dog to perform a behavior in the presence of distractions.

Punishment: In operant conditioning, a consequence to a behavior in which something is added to or removed from the situation to make the behavior less likely to occur in the future.

Last edited by fawkese1; 05-09-2014 at 01:48 AM.
fawkese1 is offline  
Old 05-07-2014, 11:50 PM
  #18
Senior Member
 
fawkese1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: California...in the mountains
Posts: 22,639
Mentioned: 38 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
Q

terms beginning with Q
fawkese1 is offline  
Old 05-07-2014, 11:50 PM
  #19
Senior Member
 
fawkese1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: California...in the mountains
Posts: 22,639
Mentioned: 38 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
R

Rate of reinforcement: The number of reinforcers given for desired responses in a specific period of time. A high rate of reinforcement is critical to training success.

Ratio: A schedule of reinforcement in which the trainer reinforces desired behavior based on the number of responses. In a fixed ratio, the trainer reinforces the first “correct” response after a specific number of correct responses. “Two-fers” and “three-fers” are examples of fixed ratios. In a variable ratio reinforcement schedule, the trainer reinforces the first correct response after varying numbers of correct responses.

Reinforcement: In operant conditioning, a consequence to a behavior in which something is added to or removed from the situation to make the behavior more likely to occur in the future.4 quadrants of operant conditioning

Release word: A word that signals the end of a behavior. After a behavior is strong and on cue, clicker trainers replace the clicker with a release word.

Respondent conditioning: The process of associating a neutral stimulus with an involuntary response until the stimulus elicits the response. A famous example was the discovery by Ivan Pavlov: dogs drooled when they heard a bell that was previously paired with food. Also called classical conditioning.

Reward: Something your dog likes that is given to him after performing a given cue. Not to be confused with "reinforcement" please see:

Last edited by fawkese1; 05-26-2014 at 12:38 AM.
fawkese1 is offline  
Old 05-07-2014, 11:51 PM
  #20
Senior Member
 
fawkese1's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: California...in the mountains
Posts: 22,639
Mentioned: 38 Post(s)
Tagged: 0 Thread(s)
S

Secondary reinforcer: A conditioned reinforcer. A reinforcer the animal is not born needing. Secondary reinforcers may be as, or even more, powerful than a primary reinforcer. Synonyms: conditioned reinforcer

Shaping: Building new behavior by selectively reinforcing variations in existing behavior, during the action rather than after completion, to increase or strengthen the behavior in a specific manner or direction.

Spontaneous recovery: A characteristic of extinction in which a behavior that was thought to be extinct unexpectedly reappears. If the trainer ensures that the behavior is not reinforced, it will disappear again quickly.

Stimulus: A change in the environment. If the stimulus has no effect on the animal, it is a neutral stimulus. A stimulus that stands out in the environment, that the animal notices more than other environmental stimuli, is a salient stimulus. A stimulus that causes a change of state in the animal, that causes him to perform a specific behavior, for example, is a discriminative stimulus.

Stimulus control: A conditioned stimulus becomes a discriminative stimulus (or cue) when it is followed by a specific learned behavior or reaction. The response is said to be 'under stimulus control' when presentation of the particular stimulus fulfills these four conditions: the behavior is always offered when that cue is presented; the behavior is not offered in the absence of that cue; the behavior is not offered in response to some other cue; and no other behavior occurs in response to that cue.

Successive approximation: Increasing or altering a behavior incrementally by repeatedly changing the environment to amplify or extend the behavior. For example, increasing the weight of a load or the height of a jump by small increments to amplify the effort to pull a load or jump an obstacle.

Last edited by fawkese1; 05-08-2014 at 01:19 AM.
fawkese1 is offline  
Closed Thread



Thread Tools
Display Modes

Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Resource for dog food ingredient definitions... TonkaTruckJK Dog Food 3 09-12-2010 09:30 PM


Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On

All times are GMT -5. The time now is 10:26 AM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.8
Copyright ©2000 - 2017, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.
SEO by vBSEO 3.6.0 PL2
vBulletin Security provided by vBSecurity v2.2.2 (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2017 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.
User Alert System provided by Advanced User Tagging v3.1.0 (Lite) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2017 DragonByte Technologies Ltd. Runs best on HiVelocity Hosting.