Definitions of Training/Behavior Terms

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Definitions of Training/Behavior Terms

This is a discussion on Definitions of Training/Behavior Terms within the Training and Behavior Stickies forums, part of the Dog Training and Behavior category; In order to help everyone communicate with one another more clearly, we have decided to compile a list of training/behavior terms, and their accepted definitions. ...

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Old 05-07-2014, 11:37 PM
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Definitions of Training/Behavior Terms

In order to help everyone communicate with one another more clearly, we have decided to compile a list of training/behavior terms, and their accepted definitions. The list is in alphabetic order and since we will be adding to it as time goes on, there are some blank posts as place holders for each letter. If anyone would like to see a term defined, OR if you have any links/videos that would illustrate the definitions posted, please use this thread in the suggestions forum to let us know.


***SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE LINKED TO***
The following is a list of sources for the definitions that have not otherwise been linked to.
Some of the definitions have been edited from the quoted form so that they fit the purposes of our forum, and some of the terms were defined by forum members.


Clicker Training Terms | Karen Pryor Clicker Training

http://www.4pawsu.com/index.htm
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Old 05-07-2014, 11:39 PM
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A

Aversive: Any circumstance or event that causes pain, fear, or emotional discomfort.

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Old 05-07-2014, 11:39 PM
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B

Back-chaining: Training the last behavior in a chain first, then training the next-to-last behavior, then the behavior before that, and so on. Back-chaining takes advantage of the Premack principle.

Balanced training: A euphemism used to describe a mix of traditional or punishment-based training and other training techniques, such as clicker training.

Behavior: Any observable action an animal does.

Behavior chain: A series of behaviors linked together in a continuous sequence by cues, and maintained by a reinforcer at the end of the chain. Each cue serves as the marker and the reinforcer for the previous behavior, and the cue for the next behavior.

Bridging stimulus: An event marker that identifies the desired response and “bridges” the time between the response and the delivery of the primary reinforcer. The clicker is a bridging stimulus.

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Old 05-07-2014, 11:40 PM
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C

Calming signals: Subtle body signals used by dogs to indicate stress and to avoid or diffuse confrontation and aggression.

Capturing: The process of putting a behavior your dog does naturally, on a cue. This can be done by reinforcing the dog whenever you see him doing the behavior. The process can be expedited by using a clicker/marker word and setting up situations where the dog is most likely to perform the behavior.

Chaining: The process of combining multiple behaviors into a continuous sequence linked together by cues, and maintained by a reinforcer at the end of the chain. Each cue serves as the marker and the reinforcer for the previous behavior, and the cue for the next behavior.

Classical conditioning: The process of associating a neutral stimulus with an involuntary response until the stimulus elicits the response.

Clicker: A toy noisemaker. Animal trainers make use of the clicker as an event marker to mark a desired response. The sound of the clicker is an excellent marker because it is unique, quick, and consistent.

Clicker training: Clicker training is a system of teaching that uses positive reinforcement in combination with an event marker.

Combined training: A type of training using all five principles of operant conditioning and a marker signal (clicker) to modify behavior.

Compulsion training: The traditional style of dog training, where the dog is modeled or otherwise compelled to perform the behavior and physically corrected for noncompliance.

Conditioned punisher: A conditioned stimulus that signifies that an aversive is coming. Used to deter or interrupt behavior; if the behavior halts or changes, the aversive may be avoided. For example, a trainer that says “ack” to interrupt a behavior, or the warning beep of a shock collar when a dog gets too close to the boundary of an electric fence.

Conditioned reinforcer: A neutral stimulus paired with a primary reinforcer until the neutral stimulus takes on the reinforcing properties of the primary. A clicker, after being repeatedly associated with a food treat or other reinforcer, becomes a conditioned reinforcer.

Conditioned stimulus: Any stimulus that has preceded a particular behavior or event sufficiently often to provoke awareness or response. Clicks and cues are both examples of conditioned stimulus.

Consequencesearch for term
The result of an action. Consequences frequently, but not always, affect future behavior, making the behavior more or less likely to occur. The five principles of operant conditioning describe the potential results.

Continuous reinforcement: The simplest schedule of reinforcement. Every desired response is reinforced.

Correction: A euphemism for the application of a physical aversive. The aversive is intended to communicate that the dog did something wrong. In some cases, the trainer then guides the dog through the desired behavior. The application of an aversive followed by desired behavior is considered instructive, thus the euphemism ”correction.”

Counter-conditioning: Pairing one stimulus that evokes one response with another that evokes an opposite response, so that the first stimulus comes to evoke the second response. For example, a dog is afraid of men wearing hats. When a man wearing a hat approaches, the dog is repeatedly fed his favorite food. The goal is to replace the animal’s apprehension with the pleasure elicited by the food. Counter-conditioning must be done gradually, however; if the process is rushed, the favorite food may take on the fear association instead.

Criteria: The specific, trainer-defined characteristics of a desired response in a training session. The trainer clicks at the instant the animal achieves each criterion. Criteria can include not only the physical behavior but elements like latency, duration, and distance.

Crossover dog: A dog that has previously been trained by a non-clicker method and is now being clicker trained.

Crossover trainer: A trainer who previously used non-clicker methods to train animals and is now clicker training.

Cue: A stimulus that elicits a behavior. Cues may be verbal, physical (i.e., a hand signal), or environmental (i.e., a curb may become a cue to sit if the dog is always cued to sit before crossing a road).

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Old 05-07-2014, 11:41 PM
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D

Desensitization: The process of increasing an animal’s tolerance to a particular stimulus by gradually increasing the presence of the stimulus.

Differential reinforcement: Some responses are rewarded and others aren’t. For example, a trainer wanting tucked sits would reward tucked sits and ignore all others. Differential reinforcement is not a schedule of reinforcement.

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Old 05-07-2014, 11:41 PM
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E

Environmental reinforcer: Anything in the environment that your dog wants. Trainers can use access to these things as powerful reinforcers for desired behavior. For example, say your dog wants to greet an approaching dog. You can ask for a behavior and then let your dog’s compliance (or non-compliance) determine whether he gets to meet and greet.

Event marker: A signal used to mark desired behavior at the instant it occurs. The clicker is an event marker.

Extinction: The weakening of behavior through non-reinforcement or “ignoring” the behavior. In extinction, nothing is added or removed from the environment. For example, a treat lies on the other side of a fence. A dog reaches his paw under, but cannot reach the treat. Because reaching for the treat doesn’t work—because it isn’t reinforced through success—the dog will eventually quit reaching for the treat.

Extinction burst: A characteristic of extinction. If a previously reinforced behavior is not reinforced, the animal will increase the intensity or frequency of the behavior in an attempt to earn the reinforcement again. If the behavior is not reinforced it will diminish again after an extinction burst.

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Old 05-07-2014, 11:42 PM
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F

Fixed interval: A schedule of reinforcement in which the trainer reinforces a desired behavior after a specific period of time—for example, every minute.

Fixed ratio: A schedule of reinforcement in which the trainer reinforces a desired behavior after a specific number of responses. Two-fers and three-fers are examples of fixed ratios.

Four quadrants of operant conditioning: An incorrect reference to the commonly seen chart illustrating the concepts of reinforcement and punishment. This description is misleading in two ways. It neglects to mention extinction, and it implies that all the principles of operant conditioning are of equal value in a training program.

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Old 05-07-2014, 11:42 PM
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G

terms beginning with G
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Old 05-07-2014, 11:43 PM
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H

Habituation: The ability to get used to and stop reacting to meaningless stimuli.

Head halter: Similar to a horse’s halter, a dog’s head halter gives the trainer control of the dog’s head, making it easier to manage a dog on leash until the dog has been taught to walk at the handler’s side.

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I

Interval reinforcement: The trainer reinforces according to a time schedule. In a fixed interval, the trainer reinforces the desired response after a specific period of time—for example, every minute. In a variable interval, the trainer reinforces after varying periods of time within a certain timeframe.

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