09-02-2012, 04:38 PM
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: California...in the mountains
Mentioned: 38 Post(s)
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putting them back together
ok, so now we know what the individual parts of the terms mean:
positive = ADDING
negative = MINUSING
reinforcement = INCREASE BEHAVIOR
punishment = DECREASE BEHAVIOR
let's put them together, first for the "positives"
positive (ADDING) reinforcement (INCREASE BEHAVIOR):
means that you are ADDING something that will INCREASE BEHAVIOR. for example, giving your dog a treat, a toy, for some dogs laughing, letting them continue moving forward etc when he does something you like, means he is more likely to do it again. in the picture, the dog is given a treat for keeping the leash loose, and they keep moving forward, both are rewarding for the dog so he is more likely to keep the leash loose in the future.
positive (ADDING) punishment (DECREASE BEHAVIOR):
means that you are ADDING something that will DECREASE BEHAVIOR. for example, hitting your dog, leash pops, scolding, etc. when he does something you don't like which means that he isn't likely to do the behavior again. in the picture the dog is given a leash pop and a scolding when he pulls. both are likely to be considered aversive to the dog and meant to make pulling on the leash less likely to happen in the future.
on the the "negatives"
negative (MINUSING) reinforcement (INCREASE BEHAVIOR):
means you are MINUSING something, in order to INCREASE a behavior that you like. this is a bit tricky to conceptualize, since there needs to be an aversive in place to begin, but basically you remove the aversive so that the dog will continue/increase a behavior. in the picture they use the cessation of leash pops and scolding to encourage the dog to walk on a loose leash. when the pulling stops the aversives stop. the dog learns that in order to avoid the aversive, he must perform x-behavior.
negative (MINUSING) punishment (DECREASE BEHAVIOR):
this is a bit easier to wrap your brain around. you are MINUSING something that the dog finds rewarding in order to DECREASE BEHAVIOR. taking away what the dog finds rewarding, withholding treats, removing your attention, not moving forward on a walk when the dog pulls, etc. are all things that are intended to DECREASE BEHAVIORS. in the picture, they use the "tree method" and withhold treats until the dog stops pulling.